Smart Grids Data Processing Analysis [Step 3]
In the 1980s, the ability to automatically track the power consumption of large customers in real time became possible, which in turn became the concept of "Smart Meter", which allows to track the power consumption of any customer in almost real time.
"Smart Meters" Functions
The "Smart Meters" are designed to read, store and retrieve information in real time, report energy losses and monitor the quality of utility resources. To implement these functions, the meters are equipped with microcontrollers with autonomous power supply for 5-10 years, the so-called Crystal-to-Chip Systems (CSC). These single-chip systems have the ability to adapt the circuit to a specific task and certain conditions, without using discrete components.
Data can be exchanged over power lines, for example, using the G3-PLC protocol. Thus, on the basis of G3-PLC in France is carried out the design of innovative infrastructure for metering and measuring energy, with more than 35 million users. This technology is the basis for the creation of international standards, such as ITU G.hnem/G.9955 and IEEE P1901.2. In addition, there are a number of analogue and mixed (digital-analog) solutions, including power management information systems, real-time clocks and communication facilities.
Consideration of local regulations
In North America, the AMR (Automated Meter Reading) regulatory standards establish frequency regulations for data collection and transmission. Moreover, these regulations define how much data a meter must store at a certain point in time. Since the communication channel is not always reliable and can be hacked, some of the regulations require utility providers to store information about the last two transmission sessions - to verify the data during billing. In this connection, developers are forced to increase the amount of local embedded memory in the smart meter integrated circuit. Accordingly, the regulations of specific regulatory authorities directly determine the development process of smart meters, including at the level of "iron" (chip).
In emerging markets, where the amount of energy lost or stolen makes up a significant proportion of the total energy within the network, data protection is of great importance. The ability to detect and prevent malicious activity with a "Smart Meter" can simplify control and reduce costs for utility providers. "Smart Meters" with integrated chip-level functionality are an effective platform for further development, such as providing wireless communication with thermostats to control load during peak hours.
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To be continued