Health and Safety during the Work
During the development of any project the following requirements should be carried out:
1. Safety requirements before work :
No working in outerwear, no noise, no smoking and no eating in the room;
It is forbidden to clutter passes, an exit, corridors and access to fire extinguishing funds
Behind every computer, there should be a person working;
There should be no visible damage to the computer (i.e. violation of case integrity, violation of wire insulation, faulty indication of food inclusion, signs of tension on the case, etc.).
2. Safety requirements during development :
The optimal distance between the eyes and the monitor screen (60-70 cm) should be respected;
The health standards and the operating and resting modes should be respected;
The maintenance rules for the IT installations should be observed in accordance with the maintenance instructions;
Fire safety rules should be respected
3. The safety requirements should be regularly complied with at the end of the work :
Power supply should be disconnected;
Handover of the laboratory to the responsible personnel.
Electricity is the number one cause of fires in the workplace.
Electricity associated hazards
Falling off a ladder
Dismissed. Falling to the ground on a sharp edge
Thermal burns - Very hot equipment surface, explosion
Wires and Cables - Connecting Cables
Travel and Damage, Rerouting, Storage, Coverage
Muscles for the maintenance of vital functions
Diaphragm and breathing
Cardiac Fibrillation Random, uncoordinated cardiac contractions
De-fibrillation: High voltage (3000 V at 20 A) in a fraction of a second
Burns - tissue death
The guiding principle of safety is to keep the currents and voltages inside the devices and away from our bodies.
Suppose all overhead wires are supplied with lethal voltages. Never assume that a wire can be touched safely, even if it is lying flat or appears to be insulated.
Never touch a fallen overhead power line. Call the power company to report fallen power lines.
Stay at least 3 metres away from overhead wires during clean-up and other activities. If you are working at heights or handling long objects, inspect the area before starting work for overhead power lines.
If an overhead wire falls across your vehicle while you are driving, stay inside the vehicle and continue to move away from the line. If the engine stalls, do not leave your vehicle. Warn people not to touch the vehicle or the wire. Call or have someone call the local power company and emergency services.
Never operate electrical equipment while standing in the water.
Never repair electrical cords or equipment unless you are qualified and authorized.
Have a qualified electrician inspect wet electrical equipment before turning it on.
If you work in wet areas, inspect electrical cords and equipment to make sure they are in good condition and free of defects, and use a ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI).
Always use caution when working near electricity.
Life Safety during Emergencies
Fire is the rapid oxidation of a fuel that gives off heat, particles, gases and non-ionizing radiation.
Classes of fire
A - Free-burning materials, paper, wood, plastic, etc.
B - Flammable liquids, gasoline, methamphetamine, solvents, etc.
C - Flammable gases, methane, hydrogen, etc.
D - Metals, potassium, sodium, magnesium, etc.
F - Cooking fats
Fire prevention instructions
Keep the work area free of waste paper, garbage and other objects that can easily catch fire.
Check electrical cords. If a cord is damaged in any way, replace it. Try not to lay cords in areas where they can be walked on, as this contributes to the deterioration of the protective outer covering.
Do not overload circuits.
Turn off electrical appliances at the end of each day.
Keep heat-generating appliances away from anything that could burn. This includes photocopiers, coffee makers, computers, etc.
In case of fire
Hand-held and portable fire extinguishers, indoor and outdoor fire.
Carbon dioxide fire extinguishers: portable and mobile
If you find a fire, call emergency immediately and don't call for help until you are told.
Close the exit doors to limit the spread of smoke and fire in the building.
Never use elevators during an evacuation.
Follow the escape plan and go to a designated location outside the building and away from danger. Conduct a head count to ensure that all personnel have evacuated.
Calculation of Artificial Lighting
Workplace lighting calculations are used to select lighting systems, determine the number of luminaires, their type and location. On this basis, the artificial lighting parameters should be calculated. As a rule, artificial lighting is provided by electric light sources in two forms: incandescent lamps and fluorescent lamps. In this case, fluorescent lamps, which have a number of important advantages over incandescent lamps:
Spectral composition of light, they are close to daylight, natural light;
Have a higher efficiency (1.5-2 times higher than that of lampsIncandescent);
Have high luminous efficiency (3-4 times higher than that of lamps Incandescent);
The lighting calculation is made for a working room with a surface area of 18m2, with a width of 6m and a height of 3m. The working room is equipped with ceiling-mounted USP 35 light sources with two LB-40 type fluorescent lamps.
The definition of the number of fluorescent light sources in the laboratory will be calculated by the following formula of the luminous flux method :
IS – standard minimum illuminance, lx;
CS – design margin coefficient, taking into account the dust deposition and wear of the light sources in use;
S – Floor area in the room, m2;
z - Coefficient of uneven light distribution;
n - number of rows of lights;
Фls – luminous flux of the light source, lm;
mu – coefficient of shading;
nu – coefficient of utilization of lamp radiation
Due to the fact that this formula of luminous flux method and used for standard calculations, some values here already known, they are:
IS – 400lx
CS – 1.5
Z – 1.1
Mu – 0.9
The luminous flux utilization factor depends on:
PWALLS – luminous flux reflectivity of the walls
PFLOOR – floor
PBASE – light source base
Geometric dimensions of the workroom and height of base of lamps
Does not depend on the type of lamp, the workroom index calculated:
A and B - respectively the length and width of the room, m;
h - height of lights base above the work surface, m.
Due to the original data the size of the laboratory is:
A – length is 3 m
B – width is 6 m,
H – height is 3 m
For computer rooms, between floor and height of work surface is 0.8 m. Therefore:
h = H – 0.8 = 3 – 0.8 = 2.2 m
Hence, by formula
In this case, in given set
PWALLS equals to 50%,
PFLOOR equals to 70%,
PBASE equals to 10%
I equals to 0.9, through the utilization coefficient nu equals to 0.49.
The number of rows of lights is determined from the most advantageous ratio q = L / H
- q equals to 1.3...1.4,
- L – the distance between the rows of lamps, m.
The most advantageous ratio for lights USP-35, q = 1.4. Consequently, the distance between the rows of lights is calculated:
L- the distance between the rows of lights;
Lights placed along the side of the room and the distance between the walls and the end of the rows of lights equals to l= 0.3Lm. The workroom width B equals to 6 m and with the number of rows of lights:
Nominal luminous flux of lamp LB-40 ФLAMP = 3120, then the luminous flux, emitted by the light source is:
Фls = 2ФLAMP = 2*3120 = 6240lm.
S = A * B = 3 * 6 = 18m2
Determine the number of lights in a row:
The number of lights in a row equals to 2.
With a length of one type of light sourceUSP35 with lamps LB-40 is 1.27m their total length is:
Therefore, lights are placed in a row over 0.5m.