• Alibek Jakupov

Health and Safety during the Work


During the development of any project the following requirements should be carried out:


1. Safety requirements before work :

  • No working in outerwear, no noise, no smoking and no eating in the room;

  • It is forbidden to clutter passes, an exit, corridors and access to fire extinguishing funds

  • Behind every computer, there should be a person working;

  • There should be no visible damage to the computer (i.e. violation of case integrity, violation of wire insulation, faulty indication of food inclusion, signs of tension on the case, etc.).


2. Safety requirements during development :

  • The optimal distance between the eyes and the monitor screen (60-70 cm) should be respected;

  • The health standards and the operating and resting modes should be respected;

  • The maintenance rules for the IT installations should be observed in accordance with the maintenance instructions;

  • Fire safety rules should be respected


3. The safety requirements should be regularly complied with at the end of the work :

  • Power supply should be disconnected;

  • Handover of the laboratory to the responsible personnel.



Electrical Safety



Electricity is the number one cause of fires in the workplace.


Electricity associated hazards


  • Indirect Injuries

  • Falling off a ladder

  • Dismissed. Falling to the ground on a sharp edge

  • Dropping objects

  • Thermal burns - Very hot equipment surface, explosion

  • Wires and Cables - Connecting Cables

  • Travel and Damage, Rerouting, Storage, Coverage

  • Muscles for the maintenance of vital functions

  • Diaphragm and breathing

  • Cardiac Fibrillation Random, uncoordinated cardiac contractions

  • De-fibrillation: High voltage (3000 V at 20 A) in a fraction of a second

  • Burns - tissue death

  • Internal [organs]

  • External [skin]

The guiding principle of safety is to keep the currents and voltages inside the devices and away from our bodies.


  • Suppose all overhead wires are supplied with lethal voltages. Never assume that a wire can be touched safely, even if it is lying flat or appears to be insulated.

  • Never touch a fallen overhead power line. Call the power company to report fallen power lines.

  • Stay at least 3 metres away from overhead wires during clean-up and other activities. If you are working at heights or handling long objects, inspect the area before starting work for overhead power lines.

  • If an overhead wire falls across your vehicle while you are driving, stay inside the vehicle and continue to move away from the line. If the engine stalls, do not leave your vehicle. Warn people not to touch the vehicle or the wire. Call or have someone call the local power company and emergency services.

  • Never operate electrical equipment while standing in the water.

  • Never repair electrical cords or equipment unless you are qualified and authorized.

  • Have a qualified electrician inspect wet electrical equipment before turning it on.

  • If you work in wet areas, inspect electrical cords and equipment to make sure they are in good condition and free of defects, and use a ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI).

  • Always use caution when working near electricity.


Life Safety during Emergencies



Fire is the rapid oxidation of a fuel that gives off heat, particles, gases and non-ionizing radiation.


Classes of fire

  • A - Free-burning materials, paper, wood, plastic, etc.

  • B - Flammable liquids, gasoline, methamphetamine, solvents, etc.

  • C - Flammable gases, methane, hydrogen, etc.

  • D - Metals, potassium, sodium, magnesium, etc.

  • F - Cooking fats


Fire prevention instructions

  • Keep the work area free of waste paper, garbage and other objects that can easily catch fire.

  • Check electrical cords. If a cord is damaged in any way, replace it. Try not to lay cords in areas where they can be walked on, as this contributes to the deterioration of the protective outer covering.

  • Do not overload circuits.

  • Turn off electrical appliances at the end of each day.

  • Keep heat-generating appliances away from anything that could burn. This includes photocopiers, coffee makers, computers, etc.

In case of fire

  • Hand-held and portable fire extinguishers, indoor and outdoor fire.

  • Powder extinguishers

  • Carbon dioxide fire extinguishers: portable and mobile

  • If you find a fire, call emergency immediately and don't call for help until you are told.

  • Close the exit doors to limit the spread of smoke and fire in the building.

  • Never use elevators during an evacuation.

  • Follow the escape plan and go to a designated location outside the building and away from danger. Conduct a head count to ensure that all personnel have evacuated.


Calculation of Artificial Lighting


Workplace lighting calculations are used to select lighting systems, determine the number of luminaires, their type and location. On this basis, the artificial lighting parameters should be calculated. As a rule, artificial lighting is provided by electric light sources in two forms: incandescent lamps and fluorescent lamps. In this case, fluorescent lamps, which have a number of important advantages over incandescent lamps:

  • Spectral composition of light, they are close to daylight, natural light;

  • Have a higher efficiency (1.5-2 times higher than that of lampsIncandescent);

  • Have high luminous efficiency (3-4 times higher than that of lamps Incandescent);

  • Longer life

The lighting calculation is made for a working room with a surface area of 18m2, with a width of 6m and a height of 3m. The working room is equipped with ceiling-mounted USP 35 light sources with two LB-40 type fluorescent lamps.


The definition of the number of fluorescent light sources in the laboratory will be calculated by the following formula of the luminous flux method :


where

  • IS – standard minimum illuminance, lx;

  • CS – design margin coefficient, taking into account the dust deposition and wear of the light sources in use;

  • S – Floor area in the room, m2;

  • z - Coefficient of uneven light distribution;

  • n - number of rows of lights;

  • Фls – luminous flux of the light source, lm;

  • mu – coefficient of shading;

  • nu – coefficient of utilization of lamp radiation

Due to the fact that this formula of luminous flux method and used for standard calculations, some values here already known, they are:

  • IS – 400lx

  • CS – 1.5

  • Z – 1.1

  • Mu – 0.9

The luminous flux utilization factor depends on:

  • PWALLS – luminous flux reflectivity of the walls

  • PFLOOR – floor

  • PBASE – light source base

  • Geometric dimensions of the workroom and height of base of lamps

Does not depend on the type of lamp, the workroom index calculated:




where

  • A and B - respectively the length and width of the room, m;

  • h - height of lights base above the work surface, m.

Due to the original data the size of the laboratory is:

  • A – length is 3 m

  • B – width is 6 m,

  • H – height is 3 m

For computer rooms, between floor and height of work surface is 0.8 m. Therefore:

h = H – 0.8 = 3 – 0.8 = 2.2 m

Hence, by formula


In this case, in given set

PWALLS equals to 50%,

PFLOOR equals to 70%,

PBASE equals to 10%

I equals to 0.9, through the utilization coefficient nu equals to 0.49.


The number of rows of lights is determined from the most advantageous ratio q = L / H

where

- q equals to 1.3...1.4,

- L – the distance between the rows of lamps, m.

The most advantageous ratio for lights USP-35, q = 1.4. Consequently, the distance between the rows of lights is calculated:


where

L- the distance between the rows of lights;

Lights placed along the side of the room and the distance between the walls and the end of the rows of lights equals to l= 0.3Lm. The workroom width B equals to 6 m and with the number of rows of lights:



Nominal luminous flux of lamp LB-40 ФLAMP = 3120, then the luminous flux, emitted by the light source is:


Фls = 2ФLAMP = 2*3120 = 6240lm.


The floorage:


S = A * B = 3 * 6 = 18m2


Determine the number of lights in a row:


The number of lights in a row equals to 2.


With a length of one type of light sourceUSP35 with lamps LB-40 is 1.27m their total length is:


Therefore, lights are placed in a row over 0.5m.


 
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