• Alibek Jakupov

Labor Safety and Industrial Ecology : Microclimate and Workplace Hazards



Introduction


Occupational health and safety measures are an important item in the set of measures aimed at improving working conditions. More and more attention is paid to these issues every year, as health care is not only a matter of national importance, but also an element of competition among employers in attracting workers. For the successful implementation of all health and safety measures, knowledge of the physiology of work is necessary, which makes it possible to properly organize the work process.

The problem of occupational health and safety becomes particularly important in the context of scientific and technological progress, rapidly growing production, introduction of new technologies and methods, the growing role of man in production and the social significance of safe and healthy working conditions.



Microclimate



A microclimate is the entire habitat of an individual or small group of organisms. It is defined by:

  • Temperature (0 C)

  • Relative humidity (%)

  • Air speed (m/s)

Normalization of the microclimate in the working area depends on the season, the categories of work on energy costs and the availability of internal heat sources and all this in accordance with the Norm 12.1.005-88 "Labor Safety Standard". General Hygienic Requirements for an Airborne Work Area".


Microclimate Conditions

Workplace Hazards



Anything that poses a potential danger to employees, whether physical or psychological, can be classified as a hazard in the workplace.


The conditions of work in some workplaces, including job design and responsibilities associated with that work, may be particularly dangerous. For example, workplaces with sometimes wet floors can be very dangerous, even if service personnel install wet floor warning signs. Work that requires heavy lifting work to be done frequently can result in lifelong injury without proper procedures and safety regulations.


Technological risks are risks arising from technological or industrial conditions, including accidents, unsafe procedures, infrastructure failures or specific human activities, which may result in loss of life, injury, illness or other health effects, damage to property, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption or environmental damage.


Specifics of hazards:

  • Physical hazards are the most common hazards and are present in most workplaces at some time.

  • Frayed electrical cords, X – radiation and UV – radiation, unguarded machinery, exposed moving parts, constant loud noise, vibrations, working from ladders, scaffolding or heights, spills, tripping hazards.

  • Chemical hazards are present when person is exposed to any chemical preparation (solid, liquid or gas) in the workplace.

  • Cleaning products and solvents, vapors and fumes, carbon monoxide or other gases, gasoline or other flammable materials.

  • Ergonomic hazards occur when the type of work person does, his body position and/or his working conditions put a strain on his body. They are difficult to identify because he does not immediately recognize the harm they are doing to your health.

  • Poor lighting, improperly adjusted workstations and chairs, frequent lifting, repetitive or awkward movements



Management of Hazards


All aspects in the workplace should be covered by a general risk assessment process, which could reveal current significant hazards and controls in the workplace. Risk is: "The likelihood that a substance, person, activity or process will cause harm (injury or illness)". By reducing the risk, hazards could be controlled through good management.


Hazards reduction steps:


1) Identification

- Look for the hazard


2) Assessment and Evaluation

- Decide who might be harmed, how and to what extent


3) Controls

- Decide whether the existing precautions are adequate or more should be done


4) Monitoring and Reviewing

- Periodic checking for continuous improvement


According to the Health regulations "Sanitary and epidemiologic requirements to operation and personal computers, video terminals and to working conditions with them", approved as the order of the Minister of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan of April 25, 2011 No. 217 in this work the organizations of the workplace equipped with PC: the production room and working conditions of the worker conform to requirements. The physiological - hygienic and psychological factors well influence working capacity and brainwork. A room microclimate, illumination, noise - rated. The working zone and a place were chosen respectively.

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