• Alibek Jakupov

Machine Learning and Music : Grace and Beauty (part IV)

Updated: Jul 1, 2019




When the nyhtegale singes,     The wodes waxen grene, Lef ant gras ant blosme springes     In Averyl, Y wene ; Ant love is to myn herte gon     With one spere so kene, Nyht ant day my blod hit drynkes     Myn herte deth me tene.

Medieval poem dating from the early fourteenth century begins


In the previous article we discussed the timeline of the Artificial Intelligence from 1963 to 1970. So much closer to our days right?


In this article we are going to cover the next period of the fascinating history of the AI and music.



1979: Students at Stanford University, Anne Murray and C'est Chic



In 1963 there was an interesting research conducted by the Stanford University students, that aimed to create a cart able to navigate and avoid obstacles in a room. It was a significant step in the Machine Learning history.


American R&B band Chic released their second studio album on Atlantic Records in 1978. This album was called C'est Chic and became the most popular R&B album of 1979. The most popular country single became "I Just Fall in Love Again" by Anne Murray.



1980: Call me, ANN and Let's get serious



Who nowadays doesn't know convolutional neural networks (CNNs)? They are used everywhere, especially in computer vision tasks. But do you know that they were mainly inspired by Neocognition. Kunihiko Fukushima, a Japanese computer scientist, most noted for his work on artificial neural networks and deep learning, first published his work on the neocognitron in 1980. Neocognition is a type of artificial neural network (ANN) a hierarchical, multilayered artificial neural network. It has been used for handwritten character recognition and other pattern recognition tasks.


Released in the US in early 1980 as a single, "Call Me" was No. 1 for six consecutive weeks on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, where it became the band's biggest single and second No. 1, making it the most listened pop single.


Jermaine La Jaune Jackson an American singer, songwriter, bass guitarist, and member of The Jackson Five. In 1980 the title track from Jermaine Jackson's 1980 album Let's Get Serious on Motown Records became the most popular song in the R&B/Soul/Hip-hop category. The song was written by Lee Garrett and Stevie Wonder.


1981: Explanation Based Learning, Endless Love and Kim Carnes



In 1981 Gerald Dejong presented his work explaining the principles of Explanation Based Learning. The main idea underlying the principle consisted in a computer algorithm able to analyze data and draw a general rule as a conclusion. Moreover the Explanation Based algorithm was able to discard unimportant data.


"Bette Davis Eyes", a song written and composed by Donna Weiss and Jackie DeShannon, became the 1981's hit. Even if it was recorded for the first time in 1974 by DeShannon it was made popular by American singer Kim Carnes. The 1981 version spent nine weeks at No. 1 on the Billboard Hot 100 and was Billboard's biggest hit of 1981.


"Endless Love", a song written by Lionel Richie and originally recorded as a duet between Richie and fellow R&B singer Diana Ross, was the 1981's most listened R&B track.


References:

  1. Seppo Linnainmaa (1970). "The representation of the cumulative rounding error of an algorithm as a Taylor expansion of the local rounding errors." Master's Thesis (in Finnish), Univ. Helsinki, 6–7.

  2. Linnainmaa, Seppo (1976). "Taylor expansion of the accumulated rounding error". BIT Numerical Mathematics. 16 (2): 146–160. doi:10.1007/BF01931367.

  3. Griewank, Andreas (2012). "Who Invented the Reverse Mode of Differentiation?". Documenta Matematica, Extra Volume ISMP: 389–400.

  4. Griewank, Andreas and Walther, A. Principles and Techniques of Algorithmic Differentiation, Second Edition. SIAM, 2008.

  5. Schmidhuber, Jürgen (2015). "Deep learning in neural networks: An overview". Neural Networks. 61: 85–117. arXiv:1404.7828. Bibcode:2014arXiv1404.7828S.

  6. Schmidhuber, Jürgen (2015). Deep Learning. Scholarpedia, 10(11):32832. Section on Backpropagation

  7. Fukushima, Kunihiko (1980). "Neocognitron: A Self-organizing Neural Network Model for a Mechanism of Pattern The Recognitron Unaffected by Shift in Position" (PDF). Biological Cybernetics. 36: 193–202. doi:10.1007/bf00344251. PMID 7370364. Retrieved 5 June 2016.

  8. Le Cun, Yann. "Deep Learning". CiteSeerX 10.1.1.297.6176

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