Smart Grids Data Processing Analysis [Conclusion]
Our research covered methods of information collection and analysis, communication protocols and features of technical implementation of the Smart Grid system.
The methods of data processing, mechanisms of automatic distribution of power supply network load and protocols of information exchange in Smart Grid, as well as the general scheme of utility services when using this system are considered.
Smart Grid uses data from smart meters that record energy consumption at different times of day and send the data to a server where the system interprets the information and uses it to distribute energy. The transmission environment and the amount of data sent/received define the type of communication technology and network protocols on each segment of the power network. For example, the IEEE 802.15.4g standard is applied in wireless communications; the IEEE P1901, OPEN meter and ITU-T G.hnem standards are applied in cases where information is sent over power lines. One of the protocols used for dispatching control within the power grid is CPQ, a network protocol operating on top of HTTP or HTTPS. The communication system supports three levels of activity: the lower level is for collecting information from sensors, the intermediate level is for data transmission server, and the upper level is for data storage and processing server (polling server).
Communication is carried out through the Internet, the local network of the enterprise or radio channels. Provision of uninterrupted communication between electricity consumers and the network is possible with the use of common data transfer protocols and a common application layer. CPQ, as one example, is a communication protocol that allows for real-time exchange of data between different levels, regardless of distance and differences in hardware.
Smart Grid provides automatic network load balancing. In the case of the same load in each of the three phases, the system is considered balanced, so there is no need for current through the neutral wire.
Voltage and current readings at different phases in the network monitoring systems are monitored by means of analogue-to-digital converters, which measure power, voltage and current parameters simultaneously at all three phases and on the neutral wire. The digital signal processor calculates the power factor values based on the measurement results and also evaluates the parameters of the system itself (active, reactive, total energy).
For data analysis, Smart Grid systems use both proprietary tools and third-party SaaS solutions. Based on the statistical data, the system calculates the minimum number of generators required at certain points in time, in order to eliminate redundancy in major stations. The statistics are used for early fault detection in the local AC/DC power supply module. In addition, the information can be used to obtain data on the nature of the load just connected to the mains.
During peak activity hours, the Smart Grid servers begin to inform customers (both individuals and businesses) about the amount of power consumed and peak activity time. Legal entities can directly control the devices to change consumption, while individuals are encouraged to choose the tariff conditions.
At peak loads as well as in emergency situations, customers can be powered by alternative energy sources. However, it should be noted that the excess energy stored in renewable energy sources cannot be redistributed due to topology peculiarities.
The integration of Smart Grid, SCADA and alternative energy monitoring systems is capable of performing network management, data exchange, energy consumption measurement, device control, monitoring, processing and visualization of RES data. The aggregate data can be used for analysis, distribution of resources of the power supply network, consumption forecasting and planning of the power supply system development.
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