• Alibek Jakupov

Smart Grids Data Processing Analysis [Step 7]



Communication protocols in Smart Grids


Protocols are used depending on the size of the network


Wide area network, WAN


Protocol

Wireless (cellular networks 2G/3G/LTE, GPRS)

Advantages

The cellular network infrastructure has a large coverage area and is accessible; allows transmitting large amounts of information over long distances

Drawbacks

In order to have monthly access, the energy supplier has to pay for the cellular operator's infrastructure rent; in this case the energy supplier does not have access to the infrastructure.

Notes

In this case, the most optimal solution is the wireless interface



Neighborhood area network, NAN

1

Protocol

ISM Wireless Protocol

Advantages

Extensive coverage area; transformer bypass provided

Drawbacks

High dependency on the region's infrastructure; the so-called "dead zones" interfere with the installation and maintenance of equipment

Notes

Under certain topologies (e.g. US topology), it is possible to actively use


2

Protocol

IEEE 802.15.4g

Advantages

Extensive coverage area; transformer bypass provided

Drawbacks

Has not yet been approved as standard

Notes

Applicable in certain topologies


3

Protocol

ZigBee

Advantages

Low power consumption allows battery operation; affordable price; is a popular standard

Drawbacks

Information transfer rate is not high enough; small coverage area; when obstacles are encountered, communication quality is reduced

Notes

In the conditions of local networks, it is practically inapplicable


3

Protocol

First generation PLC (FSK, Yitran, Echelon)

Advantages

Affordable price

Drawbacks

The proposed reliability level does not allow for secure data transmission; insufficient bandwidth

Notes

For the implementation of intelligent power supply networks, the protocol has insufficient security and weak bandwidth.


4

Protocol

First generation narrowband OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing)

Advantages

In terms of range, bandwidth and transmission reliability, this solution is a better alternative to the FSK protocol.

Drawbacks

This protocol does not allow the transfer of information through transformers; low level of flexibility of the protocol: not compatible with the first generation.

PLC protocols

Notes

The high cost and low flexibility of the system require significant investment in its implementation.


5

Protocol

PLC Broadband

Advantages

High transmission speed

Drawbacks

This protocol does not allow for the transfer of information through transformers

Notes

In a large-scale architecture, infrastructure costs significantly exceed the cost of alternative solutions


6

Protocol

G3-PLC

Advantages

High level of reliability, long range; ability to transfer information through transformers; low infrastructure costs; frequent transfer of information due to high speed; compatibility with FSK protocol; open standard; IPv6 support

Drawbacks

Not currently approved as a standard (draft IEEE Z1901.2 for data transmission in smart grids).

Notes

In local conditions is the best solution, regardless of the region



Home area network, HAN


1

Protocol

ZigBee

Advantages

A popular solution; this standard provides an affordable price and low power consumption.

Drawbacks

Limited range; when obstacles are encountered, communication quality is reduced

Notes

When using water and gas meters, is the optimal solution for information transfer


2

Protocol

Wi-Fi

Advantages

High transmission speed

Drawbacks

Average coverage area; in the presence of interference in the form of walls and foundations of buildings there are problems with signal passage

Notes

Not able to meet the needs of utility companies, but is an acceptable solution for household applications

3

Protocol

First generation PLC (FSK, Yitran, Echelon)

Advantages

Affordable price

Drawbacks

Low noise immunity

Notes

Not applicable in case of large amounts of interference (home conditions)


4

Protocol

First generation narrowband OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing)

Advantages

In terms of range, bandwidth and transmission reliability, this solution is a better alternative to the FSK protocol.

Drawbacks

This protocol does not allow the transfer of information through transformers; low level of flexibility of the protocol: not compatible with the first generation.

PLC protocols

Notes

High price and low flexibility of the system require significant investments in implementation


5

Protocol

PLC Broadband

Advantages

The bandwidth is wide enough to ensure full performance

Drawbacks

In the conditions of local networks has an insufficient level of coverage

Notes

Not able to meet the needs of utility companies, but is an acceptable solution for household applications


6

Protocol

G3-PLC

Advantages

High level of reliability; information transfer rate is sufficient in home network conditions; IPv6 support allows interaction with a large number of devices

Drawbacks

Not currently approved as a standard (draft IEEE Z1901.2 for data transmission in smart grids).

Notes

In a home environment is the best solution, regardless of the region




To be continued

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